A small opening in the macula, the part of the retina responsible for central vision, is called a macular hole (rupture of the macula).
With age, the vitreous jelly in the middle of the eye starts to pull away from the macula. The macular tissue stretches creating a small hole, i.e. a rupture. A macular hole is most commonly associated with ageing and occurs in persons older than 60.
If the macular hole is diagnosed at an early stage, the development of symptoms may be avoided. Vision gradually becomes blurred and distorted, and as the disease progresses, a small black patch can develop and interfere with proximity and distance vision. Also, the ability to distinguish details at all distances is reduced and some objects are distorted, appearing as if they are being looked at through fog.
A vitrectomy is the most efficient method of repairing a macular hole. The method of treatment is the surgical removal of the part that is pulling on the macula in order to release it from traction. After that, a mixture of gas and air is injected in the form of a bubble. The air bubbles exert pressure on the macular hole and thus allows healing.
This surgical procedure is necessary to achieve the best possible result in repairing ruptures of the macula. The rupture slowly heals, and the gas and air disappear over time. After the surgery, vision gradually starts to return, with the speed depending on the size of the rupture and the stage in which it was diagnosed.
Regular ophthalmic examinations are of great importance, as persons who have had a rupture in one eye have a greater chance of developing a rupture in the second eye as well.
Identify the problem in time and prevent damage to the eye!